PARTS (Greek μέρη ['meri])                                                      Aristolaos, posted 2011


Holotes (pron. /həˈloʊtɨs/) and its parts are of matter and/or energy and/or mind/mental, physical or electronic etc, natural, man or animal made/artificialdeterministic or indeterministic, conscious or subconscious (or even unconscious).

Human beings are complete holoteses of matter, energy and mind.

Holotes is the parts and (all) the parts are the holotes (tautology).

A part is (like) a holotes except for a part (piece, fragment) from another holotes.


1. Absolute

2. RelativeArtificialSpecific

3. DirectReal, Physical

4. Indirect, Unreal, Mental       


Time and Ways/Modes/ (When and How):             

Parts form a holotes:

1. preceding the holotes, beforehand:

1.1. before the beginning (of the process) of creating a holotes (a priori): from the very beginning, having in mind (as a mental holotes), the required and choicest, primary parts for its forming (e.g. parts/roles in a play, material etc for a building, elements for a composition/compound, etc) (mainly man-made, artificial)

1.2. while in the process of creating a holotes (a posteriori), after discovering (finding out) of the parts that are missing, required to complete the holotes .(e.g. you want to make up a holotes of 7 parts but you have only 5 so you realize that you need another 2 parts etc) ) or else the holotes will be subjectively or objectively imperfect, defective, or unfinished, incomplete (mainly man-made, artificial).

2.1. following the holotes (natural, physical or electronic etc) i.e. as its “form” (morphe, substance, eidos, purpose, destination) prevails (creates the need-s), the parts (specifications) must satisfy it (more like 1) (e.g. a bear, a star with its planet(s) etc).

In a nutshell, the parts of a natural holotes formed and adapted/evolved to satisfy the needs, the purpose, existence/subsistence of the holotes, subsequently holotes preceding.

2.2. following the holotes (man-made, artificial, physical or electronic etc, or mental) (subjective or objective) i.e. as its “form” (morphe, substance, eidos, purpose, destination, role, duty) prevails, shows the needs, the parts (specifications) must satisfy (comply with, follow, submit to, obey, serve, adapt to) it (more like 1) (e.g. parts of a hotel or monument contracted to be made, government reshuffle).

3. existing at random, or forcibly, peremptorily, predominating or not (man-made, artificial or not) (e.g. parts in a natural seaside, water-falls and river landscape, a bacterium in an animal, etc).



There are mainly four (five in certain holoteses) kinds of parts (components, constituents) that can form a holotes:


1. A hypo-holotes

2. A part of form/morphe

3. A part of/from another holotes (fragment, piece)

4. A base or basis (principle)

5. A division


1. A hypo-holotes(constituent, also sub-holotes, sub-whole, subset, subtype), i.e. a holotes, which, while/on the one hand can function, exist alone, on the other hand/in other circumstances it can, impelled or not (with or without force) also behave as/ be a part in another holotes, either permanently or provisionally, transitionally (e.g. a subordinate concept of a super-categorical concept/abstraction, an eidos/ousia/essence/species in an genus, (see genus-differentia),  a free morpheme in a word, a worm in an organism, a dog/pet in a family, a chair in a house, a tree in a garden, a man working in a company and also being a member of a club/society, a company in an association, a country/ country-state- in a union/organization, etc).

2. A part of form (eidos, morphe) either permanent, or temporal (provisional, transitional):

a. A basic, indispensable, substantial, essential (prominent, major, specific, important, significant, prevailing) part of form (attribute, property, feature, characteristic,) that characterizes the form (eidos, morphe, substance, essence) of a holotes, of an entity (e.g. five fingers of humans, circulatory system, product of a business etc) (rather a base of a holotes, i.e. required for its existence and function)

b. Not basic, not indispensable, unessential (secondary, minor, accidental, unimportant, insignificant, not specific, not prevailing, unnecessary) part of form, not characterizing the form (eidos, substance) of a holotes, of an entity (Aristotle’s kata symbebekos/sumbebekos, by accident) (e.g. when not required: long fingers of man, one chair of a café, a tall worker of all the workers in a factory, warm or hot water, etc) (not required for the perfect existence/function of a holotes).

2.1. Natural, general or individual, absolute and moreover indivisible, irreplaceable, not severable, inseparable, irremovable (any part of an animal’s body, such as a heart/liver/ear/head/leg etc, branch or roots/leaves of a tree, etc), as developed/ evolved over the millennia in order to adapt to circumstances/its needs, like a holotes when as hypo-holotes in a larger holotes (e.g. head, leg, of an animal)

2.2. Manmade/artificial, relative, divisible, replaceable, severable, separable (such as wheels of a car, legs of a table, windows/doors of a building, a patio, an agreement of an alliance, an article of a law, a branch/division of a business, a leader of a party etc (made of elements/particles, and/or a hypo-holotes-es/constituent-s) (see Time and Ways, Parts, 2).

Nonetheless, while the natural or artificial parts of form are sometimes severed and replaced by force or need, especially when in physical property, this is not meant (they are severable/replaceable) by their original idea / definition (see mishmash, forcible holoteses, hybrids, transplants, grafts, etc).

3. A part of/from another holotes , (piece, mainly homoeomeric, homogeneous), rather a part of a total/quantity, which is not supposed to be a literal part in this context, i.e. a portion, fraction, quotient, division, section, slice, fragment, segment, bit, scrap, cut, shred, some, a number of, quantity, amount.  

4. Base or 'Basis '(sing. base/basis, pl. bases, Greek "βάσις", pl. βάσεις /΄vasis/)     (year 2011)

basebasis (principle [2][3]groundroot) (as far as we know) is natural (of nature) /absolute (somewhat partless, Greek αμερής, ameres /ame΄ris/), or artificial, relative, mainly man-made (impelled or not):


1. Absolute

2. RelativeArtificialSpecific

3. DirectReal, Physical

4. Indirect, Unreal, Mental


4.1. Natural (general, universal, absolute), of natural origin, known, felt/sensed or not so far (by man or other, directly or indirectly; discovered, detect-ed/-able, comprehen-ded/-sible, apprehen-ded/-sible, underst-ood/-andable, perceiv-e-ed/-able, perceptible/perceptual,  visible, tangible, audible,  explained, corporeal/bodily, described/defined or not), such as an elementatommolecule, (particle) (e.g. protonneutronelectron,goldsilversodium, etc, see Mendeleev’s Periodic System), nucleuskaryonDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid:  Parts: A, adenine, base pair/nucleotide + C, cistron, cytosine, factor + G, gene, guanine, nucleic acid: macromolecule/supermolecule + T, thymine), RNA (ribonucleic acid: Parts : A, adenine + C, cytosine + G, guanine, nucleid acid, ribose/carbohydrate/saccharide/sugar+ U, uracil), genegameteagametecellcolors (blueyellowred), laws of Nature (gravity/gravitationdimensionslight/photonscoldheat, etc),   motion (movementkinesis and its dimensionsspace and time), speed of light, speed of sound, parts of   soulmind (sensesfeelings/sentiments/emotionsinstincts/impulsesthoughtdecisionlovehatredfear, etc), spirit; also natural bases, rather natural holoteses (and/or their results), compositions/phenomena,(such as days, dates, lunar months/orbitswatercloudsrainhailsnowthunderboltstsunamis, storm,hurricanes,  cyclonestyphoons, etc).

4.2. Natural (physical and/or electronic) (general, local/relative), including all of 4.1 that exist in a region, locally, influenced/affected, modified, increased or decreased by local phenomena, regarding quantity, frequency, size/magnitude - with reference to quantity and quality, etc (e.g. a volcano, a river, a mountain, an island, Caribbean, Pacific, Antarctica, a solar system, a galaxy, etc).

4.3. Artificial (physical and/or electronic) (general, local), (holoteses i.e having a purpose/target, mainly made by man), created and maintained/followed/developed by all members of a group,etc, (such as society,nation) (societal)/country’s and international laws, rules, constitutions, social behaviourlanguage, mentality/mindset, structure, architecture, rhythm, fashion, regulations, habits, beliefs, institutions, synthesis (from thesis and antithesis), symbols, flags, national and religious holidaysculturecivilization religion, state constructions such as government, ministries, roads, dams, public administration buildings, stock exchange, etc.

4.4. Artificial (physical and/or electronic) (personal, local), (holoteses i.e having a purpose/target mainly made by man), created, developed, experienced, and followed/maintained by an individual/person (e.g. pictures, neuroses/phobias etc, beliefs, likes and dislikes, studies, targets etc).

4.5. Mental (intelligible) (general or personal, local), a conceptual basis, concept, made prior to the above 4.3 and 4.4.

5. Division, and subdivisions (sections): A simple holotes of matter and/or energy functions as a whole/unified entity (e.g. a book, a motorcycle, etc);  however, a complex holotes/entity of matter and/or energy and/or mind functions divided in two basic parts, two divisions (and subdivisions/sections), with distinct roles/purposes each, i.e. one division for the mental holotes (thinking, concepts, planning) and another division for the material holotes (materialization, deeds, products) (organisms: head/brain ß>  body interaction, organisations: administration ß> execution , companies, societies, etc).

At times, certain kinds of parts (a hypo-holotes, a part of form, a piece from another holotes, a division) exist in a holotes playing a different role than their name implies (an animal’s head being a part of form but playing the role of a holotes, hypo-holotes or division, etc)


Interdependence, Interaction, interrelation, correlation of holoteses and their parts/bases (Interactivity between a holotes and its parts):

All the natural (universal and/or local) holoteses, parts and bases, and the artificial ones (general and/or personal), existing in the inside or outside of them, are influenced, also, by others and influencing them, more or less -. (reciprocally, bidirectionally)

Relevant terms: Interface, convergence, overlap, reciprocity, reciprocality, interdependence, mutuality, interexchange, interaction, interactivity, symbiosis (see also SympatheiaSympatheia ).



A part, of major of minor importance, is also any attribute (tangible or intangible, material or immaterial, characteristic, quality, property, trait) existing intrinsically, in the inside of a holotes, or in the outside of it, in the environment/ambience, provisionally/at random (kata symbebekos), or permanently (see parts, time and ways, 3) which, more or less, influences/affects a holotes. (e.g. a person, a company or a family etc in a (region of a) country, neighbourhood etc, and of course them influencing the holotes, see time and ways).

Grammar: adjectives/adverbs of place, cause/purpose, manner, time (when, how long), quality, quantity; Syntax: predicate denoting essence/substance, quantity, quality, size, time (when, how long), activity, passivity or neutral status/state.

The sensible (visible, audible etc), prevailing, distinctive part, attribute, characteristic, feature, the most essential property of a holotes is the cause of its name (see onomatopoeia). 

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